This is a long blog post. [Hint: it’s not really a blog post; it’s an (non-academic) essay masquerading as a blog post] As such, some pointers as to where this is going:
- This blog post has been written by someone with a ferocious commitment to biblical-theological truth first and music second (and by music, we mean both the ‘academic’ side as well as performance practice in multiple genres). It is not to be understood as a defence for ‘hip-hop gospel’ but it is understood that most Adventists pontificate about musical technicalities without having done the homework. This is an offense to both intellectual and spiritual integrity.
- The video in question is a ‘splice-together job’ that I can only assume has been done (or authorised) by the folks at the church where this was filmed. Each section contains at least one very significant problem. Unfortunately, we have not the scope to write the necessary short book required to do justice to the problems in just these few clips, so some selection has taken place.
- This post will focus on the first (and main) argument found in this video; one that involved two proof-texts (1 Samuel 16:23 and Leviticus 10:10). His reading of the ‘basic facts’ in 1 Samuel 16 is not disputed; however, his interpretive framework for vs.14-23 is unable to withstand scrutiny. Related to that is the fact that one statement in particular about the main protagonists in Leviticus 10 is a wild piece of short-scale speculative thought that has no place in the pulpit because the specific evidence does not exist in the text. We will also explore a related passage found in 1 Samuel 18 that he never once mentions; a huge part of his undoing.
- As such, I hereby contend that his use of the passages around these two texts and his attempt to create an argument about the wrongness of certain sorts of contemporary gospel/Christian music using a sequence of these two texts that is then glued to his own personal experience (so put another way, he is creating theology out of his experience – not Scripture – and then applying this broken pseudo-theology to a technical area that he knows nothing about) is terribly flawed in concept and a total train wreck in homiletic reality.
- This blog post is not concerned with the specifics of ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ regarding styles of music inside church services and in the Christian life more generally. There will be a theological-musicological critique of a limited range of musical specifics on another blog platform at some point. That post will include a discussion of some principles found in the writings of Ellen White that relate to conscience. I will endeavour to demonstrate that the teaching in this video (which is absolutely consistent with other positions held by this speaker that have been captured in media) is a flagrant violation of said principles (this relates to #3).
- Like all of us, Dwayne Lemon is entitled to his opinions. What has roused the fires of anger (Ephesians 4:28) within me is the high-handed nature of his claim to have answered the question about the wrongness of certain music forms from Scripture when his biblical argument is bankrupt even before it is circular – and all this before we even get to his technical ignorance about music.
- This blog post is written in the first instance for English-speaking Adventists in the UK where we have specific issues of overdependence on North American Adventism. But it can be read by any Adventists who read English to profit.
- I am aware that Dwayne Lemon is greatly loved by a lot of my fellow Adventists. And I am not here to decry his ministry in many ways. For example, some people have stuck their knives into him because he has firmly spoken out against the 2520 time prophecy (which does not exist). I stand with him firmly on that, and on other things (such as his emphasis on medical missionary work). Plus, in another message he says these words: “never water down the truth to win people…” and it so happens that this is the exact principle I am now applying in this post. Music has become the kicking-post for too many people who cannot possibly have been told by the Holy Spirit to stand up and preach what they have – because the Holy Spirit cannot teach contrary to Scripture. So I am genuinely sorry for the difficulties that this will cause, but I have sat on my hands for long enough. Let’s ‘test the spirits’ – shall we?!
It is clear from the outset that Dwayne Lemon is responding to a specific question: what is wrong with contemporary gospel music that enmeshes with ‘secular’ musical styles such as (this is his list in order as you will note):
All of these cannot be meshed with gospel music because ‘God is not in’ those styles of music and so could not accept any such hybrid.
Dwayne Lemon’s argument is in two main parts. Here are the steps of the first part:
- I offer no historical or musicological evidence, but I want you to see these six styles of music as a group of genres which are all clearly sinful. I say so, and I expect you to believe me.
- God is merciful and kind and has shown me the light. Listen and understand.
- I used to be a hip-hop dancer in the world and then I did hip-hop dance in gospel music settings (colleges and churches, usually).
- I saw the ways these audience members behaved – putting their hands up (etc) – the behaviour and responses were just the same as the world.
- 1 Samuel 16:14 – Saul had a demon in him
- #16 – servants suggest that they get a dude who plays music
- #18 – they enlist David, who is both talented and ‘godly’
- #23 – whenever Saul is tormented, David plays, and the evil spirit goes away
- (rhetorical) QUESTION: “did David? rhyme? Did he recite a poem? Did he ‘rap’?
- CONCLUSION: if a godly man can play godly music to drive the evil spirit away, then an unconsecrated person can surely play ungodly music and bring an evil spirit!
Let’s look at the same text he uses in the video (we’re in 1 Samuel 16):
14 Now the spirit of the Lord departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the Lord tormented him. 15 And Saul’s servants said to him, “See now, an evil spirit from God is tormenting you. 16 Let our lord now command the servants who attend you to look for someone who is skillful in playing the lyre; and when the evil spirit from God is upon you, he will play it, and you will feel better.” (NRSV)
Now, compare the ending of verse 16 in the NKJV:
And it shall be that he will play it with his hand when the distressing spirit from God is upon you, and you shall be well.”
So the situation is: God Himself has withdrawn from Saul.
This is a more important point than people realise, and as part of making it I’ll tell a story about myself.
For some time I was disturbed by the problems of making a living as a practising Seventh-Day Adventist musician. I tried on more than one occasion to change my career to work in psychology – specifically, clinical psychology. It felt like God Himself was thwarting me – and I would later become convinced of this. But for a long time I did not see why God would not allow me to practice clinical psychology – until my later studies in theology, philosophy and mental health merged into a devotional moment and it was like I could hear the Spirit talking…
…because I suddenly understood something with profound clarity. In order to be registered as a clinical psychologist or as a psychiatrist you are bound by a code of ethics that does not set biblical-spiritual principles at the heart of decision-making and diagnostic conception. [This is also true for regular ‘somatic’ medicine, but the consequences are not as drastic and the Adventist health message and conventional medicine are being dovetailed with increasing skill.] There is a section of the global SDA church membership who regard conventional medicine as the literal handiwork of Satan himself – but they do not deny physical bodily (‘somatic’) illness and disease. However, a significantly bigger proportion of our members are not at all convinced that mental illness exists.
For the mental health professions, ‘mental illness’ or ‘psychopathology’ certainly exists. But as a Bible-believing Christian who is now studying the philosophy of psychiatry, I would (and do) say that we have both phenomena:
- people experiencing real distress in both ‘psych’ and ‘neuro’ dimensions including altered brain chemistry;
- people experiencing demon possession where the only answer comes from the ministrations of the Holy Spirit
As a practising clinical psychologist in the NHS, I could not very well recommend an ‘exorcism’ instead of one the therapeutic treatments for a patient whose troubles I understood to be spiritual rather than psychological. Worse yet, unless the Holy Spirit himself tells one, there is no way to know which is which! And I would have HATED working in clinical care under those conditions! So a merciful God kept me from what I might never have known was a bad idea until it was far too late…
Now, some of you are not used to reading sequential arguments in which the mind has to link the sections together for yourself in order to understand the net worth of the whole argument. This will be why you like preachers like Dwayne Lemon – because he keeps things nicely in soundbite form and his rhetorical style suits your aesthetic preference. But if you are going to get anything out of the exercise of reading this post, I need you to think to a higher standard that that insisted upon by both Randy Skeete and Dwayne Lemon, starting ten minutes ago. [Thank you, and God bless you!]
This is a statement rather than an argument (but the argument has to be presented elsewhere): we give TOO MUCH credit to music and we give TOO LITTLE IMPORTANCE to music – all at the same time. Now, Dwayne Lemon is saying that ‘playing music with one’s hands’ (he emphasises that) – if you are a godly person – has the unequivocal and unilateral power to bring a person back to God’s presence and heal them. That sounds good on the basis of a proof-text reading of 1 Samuel 16. But what sort of distress does Saul have? Is it psychological? Or spiritual? Or some of both? And are we sure that music can really do this?
Does music actually possess the power to make us behave in certain ways? Are you sure you want to join Dwayne Lemon in this viewpoint? Because the technical discipline of music therapy (which Neil Nedley is alleged to have studied) is clear on the ways in which music can help people with physiological, psychological and neurological distresses. So there is a pathway of argument for David’s music helping Saul in a moment of clinical depression IF that is what he is suffering from.
QUESTION: does the Bible say that Saul’s distress was psychological? Emotional? Was his problem one that we could legitimately treat in a clinical care setting? [Unlike Dwayne Lemon, I am not asking this question as a combination of a ‘straw man argument’ (by enquiry) and an argument from silence.] Or is the Bible clear on the fact that the Spirit of God had departed from Saul? What form of ‘medicalised’ (pharmacological or otherwise) or non-medical therapeutic intervention (such as ‘music therapy’) has ANY power to heal a person who is literally estranged from God?
The NRSV ending of 1 Samuel 16:16 suggest that Saul’s servants promised him that as the music played, he would ‘feel better.’ A person with terminal cancer can experience pain and be given medication which really does make them feel better – for a short while – but they are still going to die imminently thanks to those cancer cells. The NKJV ending suggests that they said that Saul ‘would be well’ as a result of the music playing. These are matters of semantics, but nonetheless, it is a stronger statement. Saul would not merely experience relief from the distress caused by the demon – he would be made to feel qualitatively better by the music.
Which would you prefer to be told if you were Saul in that situation?
Now, that kind of speculative question is no ultimate basis for theology of this sort, but I’m inviting you to think yourself into this narrative more empathetically. I would prefer the latter – to be told that I would be well, not just feel better. That’s by the by. What is not by the by is the fact that as this resource shows, the Hebrew suggests that they told Saul that he would be well!
Well, the more successful royal advisors of past and present the world over have known how to stay alive by knowing when to tell their employers exactly what they want/need to hear (the truth is often not the same thing…). So we have absolutely no theological warrant for using their statements as the basis for our understanding about the effect/affect (google that as well) of music upon the human psyche. That was a line that they fed Saul, so if you take that as ‘gospel’ – “…hey, are you feeling rubbish today? What, you have a demon inside you? Okay, get a CD of Handel’s Messiah. That should do the trick…”
No wait, I forgot something… “…get a CD of Handel’s Messiah, but it MUST be performed by genuine God-fearing, Bible Christians. Then you’re sorted!”
This is how we get to the problem of building theology out of our own experiences – as well as out of just one experience (be it ours or someone else’s). Someone recommended David, they shipped him into the palace and before any mention of his specific ministry to Saul is mentioned, we are told how much Saul likes him. Then, in verse 23, we see that after he played, Saul felt better and the ‘evil spirit left him.’
QUESTION: does that actually mean that the Spirit of God had returned to Saul?
Let’s take a look at what preceded that, shall we?
A God chooses Saul as king (9:1-10:27a)
B People accept Saul as king (10:27b-11:13)
C Samuel acquiesces to Saul as king (11:14-12:25)
C′ Samuel rebukes Saul (13:1-15a)
B′ People rebuke Saul (13:15b-14:52)
A′ God rejects Saul as king (15:1-35)
But we also have the following:
A Samuel rebukes Saul (13:1-15a)
B Victory in war (13:15b-14:23)
X Saul’s foolish oath (14:24-46)
B′ Victory in war (14:47-52)
A′ God rejects Saul as king (15:1-35)
Why does anyone think I have laid this out for you? Anyone?
Okay, another question: if you had a relative who was SDA and they were spiritually estranged from God and you wanted that to change, would you suggest that the playing of music would have the power to make that happen?
By the time we get to 1 Samuel 16, SAUL IS ALREADY REJECTED AS KING. Oh my word. I need to preach, but instead I have a blog so this will have to do. Jesus, please help me. One of the most important ways for us to understand the concept of the ‘wrath of God’ is to recognise that it takes the form of God leaving us to live as if we are God to ourselves on our own terms. So when the servants saw what bad shape Saul was in, they KNEW that he was spiritually in trouble. God was not the actual instigator of the demon’s entering Saul, but Saul’s staff were theologically savvy enough to know that if Saul was in this kind of state, it could not have happened without God allowing it to happen.
We cannot possibly know what else they did and did not understand, but if their king was estranged from God himself, state problems did not come much bigger than that. They had to come up with something, so regardless of whether or not they were really convinced that it would work, they utilised some ‘Pentecostal gospel music theology.’ What do I mean?
I mean that this school of thought holds that praise in music can change the mind of God. If someone came and played the sort of music that would appeal to God, perhaps God would relent and banish the demon for poor King Saul. Perhaps this helps explain why it was not unimportant that David was known for being truly God-fearing – i.e. a truly spiritual musician was Saul’s best hope of relief…
…so the courtiers surmised.
Did they know that Saul was on a downward spiral from which we would never recover? Like a terminally-ill cancer patient in a hospice, the most he could hope for was some moments of relief towards the end…except, of course, that this was spiritual sickness – spiritual disease. The terrifying thing was that Saul had already been given a second chance to do the right thing by God and the fact that Samuel himself had to kill King Agag tells us that Saul failed once more. [This would be a good time to read the whole of 1 Samuel 15 if you haven’t already…]
Saul’s spiritual pathology has now gone from potentially-terminal to terminal. He’s DONE. And whoever else doesn’t know it, he knows it. This is now at the heart of the total failure of Dwayne Lemon’s pseudotheology about how a godly person can play godly music and drive evil spirits away – because there was absolutely nothing that could bring the Spirit of God back to Saul. Instead of repenting in sackcloth and ashes like the king of Nineveh, Saul pathetically asks Samuel to let him at least not lose his public dignity – for in his eyes, this was all he had left to live for. A whole legion of spiritually genuine lyre players – or indeed players of every instrument in existence – could not have brought the Spirit of God to a soul who had rejected that same Spirit. So the claims Dwayne Lemon makes after he finishes reading 1 Samuel 16:23 are so wrong it is scarcely believable. Worse yet, he tries to be a mixture of clever and humorous by asking three rhetorical questions:
- “Did David rhyme?”
- “Did he recite a poem?”
- “Did David rap?”
This is a classic ‘argument from silence’ – it is more than obvious that David did not do these things. When Bathsheba’s illegitimate first child with David got sick and Nathan prophesied that the child would die, did David go to the hospital and co-opt the best paediatric surgeons money could buy…etc? Or did he pray and fast?
Some SDA prayer warriors would love that if a preacher intoned those kinds of words in a message. Pray! Pray! Don’t call the doctor. Don’t go to the hospital. Just pray and fast like never before…
…but some devout Jehovah’s Witnesses would also love that, especially those who really would refuse to allow anyone to have a blood transfusion. People die all the time as a result of that belief. So we can use a Dwayne Lemon-style argument to argue that 1 Samuel 12:15-17 shows us that fasting and prayer is the way to go…not trying to do God’s work for him by getting doctors and stuff involved…
…and some of you would say: “Rubbish! the child died! It didn’t work! That’s no argument for anything!”
Really? You are positive about that? Okay. Please keep reading.
So, Dwayne Lemon is still right in this instance because Saul felt better! It worked! Read the Bible, Mr Radically-Adventist-blog-dude. Verse 23:
1 Samuel 16:23 Amplified Bible (AMP)
23 So it came about that whenever the [evil] spirit from God was on Saul, David took a harp and played it with his hand; so Saul would be refreshed and be well, and the evil spirit would leave him.
And so Dwayne Lemon riffs on that, implying that there is a specific reason (other than the fact that hip-hop had not been invented) why David did not ‘rhyme’ or ‘rap’ or even ‘recite a poem’ (not even a psalm-poem?! Really?!) – but there is a specific reason why he played music with his hand.
QUESTION: what brings the Spirit of God?
NEXT QUESTION: are God and Satan equal?
NEXT QUESTION again: does Dwayne Lemon really think that Satan has the power to read minds and hear prayer and respond to that prayer in the EXACT SAME WAY that God does?!?!?
So…godly musician plays and guaranteed, God shows up?! REALLY?
Unconsecrated musician plays and Satan shows up?! REALLY?!
Does he really think it is just that simple?
So God ALWAYS comes when He is summoned by a godly musician? Or is that too much of a stretch? Okay – how about ‘He’s more likely to come if a godly musician plays?’
No chance, my brothers and sisters. No one gets out an instrument just like that and plays and the Spirit of God comes – guaranteed. If our very prayers in words are not a guarantee that God ends suffering and trial on the timetable we would prefer, where is the argument that God has to come into Saul’s heart and mind just because David plays his harp?! The Spirit will respond to David’s praise every time – but that has nothing to do with Saul.
And Satan is a created, contingent being. He cannot read minds, so if someone prays to him in their heart but offers no external manifestation of their satanic devotion, he might ‘guess’ but he cannot ever ‘know’ until he has some evidence! Plus, if a person demands that Satan comes through their music, God can bind both the person and the music if he chooses..so that ‘prayer’ cannot be ‘answered’ without divine say-so!
Let me offer a much stronger hypothesis.
Luke 13:16 King James Version (KJV)
16 And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years, be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day?
This is a proof-text argument which you can judge for yourself. Jesus is speaking, and because He tells us that Satan has bound this woman, we can infer that Satan can indeed bind people. Which makes sense – when the demon enters Saul, Satan owns him. Think with me: Mormon evangelists invite potential Bible study recruits to ask God if the message of the Book of Mormon is true. People say that those prayers are ‘answered.’ Who is ‘answering’ them?! How do we think some of those false healing and other forms of miracle are taking place?!
I suspect that in some cases at least, Satan is binding and unloosing, binding and unloosing. He is more than the just father of lies; he is the arch-manipulator extraordinaire. How else is it that people are going to be sufficiently deceived into thinking that they know God only to get to the judgment bar of God and be told, ‘I know you not?!?!’
Elsewhere I have shared that distraction is a narcotic – deeply spiritually addictive and as destructive to humanity as anything else we fear. We cannot possibly know the details, but on some level the music that David plays was of an order that Saul could find some sort of momentary solace. Perhaps Satan toyed with him by leaving him alone at first while David played and so it seemed that the music drove the demon away. But as I have endeavoured to show, Saul was estranged from God and music itself could not make him well. Only God himself could heal him and God was who Saul rejected first – for God only rejects us after we have rejected him.
We’re not finished yet. Turn with me to 1 Samuel 18.
10 Now it came about on the next day that an evil spirit from God came mightily upon Saul, and he raved in the midst of the house, while David was playing the harp with his hand, as usual; and a spear was in Saul’s hand. 11 Saul hurled the spear for he thought, “I will pin David to the wall.” But David escaped from his presence twice.
12 Now Saul was afraid of David, for the Lord was with him but had departed from Saul. 13 Therefore Saul removed him from his presence and appointed him as his commander of a thousand; and he went out and came in before the people.
All sorts of commentators have speculated as to what the ‘raving’ might have signified – some versions say ‘prophesied!’ Now, if Dwayne Lemon’s argument about godly music being played by a godly person had ANY WEIGHT WHATSOEVER, Saul should have been jolted out of his mad ravings and calmed down by the Spirit of God.
Dwayne Lemon rested an entire case on 1 Samuel 16:23. I’ll be an Adventist preacher and say it again: godly musician – godly music = Spirit of God and that’s how Saul got sorted.
If Saul had not ‘responded’ to David’s playing the very first time…would that have meant that David was not as godly as had been assumed? Or not as talented? How was Saul going to derive ANY spiritual benefit when he was so estranged from God?
But wait…in 1 Samuel 18, David is the same David, playing the same instrument – and this time, the music angers Saul so much that he tries to kill David. TWICE!
[David had faith and courage…man. Once would have been more than enough for me…!]
Think with me: why does Dwayne Lemon not ever mention 1 Samuel 18? Imagine that this sermon has been preached in a UK Adventist church and a new seeker whose Biblical literacy is growing hears the message. They are watching and learning from the church members. They are learning about the different modes in Scripture (e.g. you don’t read a parable as ‘history’ but at the same time ‘miracles’ are actual ‘history’ etc – and you cannot find a single (proof) text to confirm the doctrine of the Trinity and all the rest of it. Great. So they come to church, hear this message. They’re not too familiar with 1 Samuel. They’ve learned that SDAs here in the UK favour the KJV or the NKJV but they prefer to read the ESV for themselves and some have a Clear Word or a Message for helping to make sense of Leviticus, Proverbs, Job…etc. Great. They go home and start reading 1 Samuel from the beginning. Get to Chapter 9, then 12, 13, 15, 16 – oh yes, familiar – 17…18.
And then they call you up and ask you to explain Dwayne Lemon’s thesis in light of verses 10-13 of 1 Samuel 18.
How will you answer? Is that good sermon technique? Is that good Bible study technique? How is this sermon going to help a new believer who may really like hip-hop get hold of the fact that hip-hop gospel might really be a bad idea when the preacher does not have homiletic credibility (while saying all the while that ‘God has shown him something)?’ How does that fly?
But it gets even worse. Time for the second part of Dwayne Lemon’s argument.
Scroll to 5:13 or thereabouts on the video above. Dwayne Lemon tells the faithful gathered that “…the Bible says that because they were drunk they had something called ‘strange fire….”
Where in the Bible – never mind just Leviticus 10 – are we told specifically that Nadab and Abihu were drunk? The man says that “the Bible says” but the Bible says no such thing. There is no text with that information and no way to infer that as a ‘fact.’ We can speculate, but the untruth he has just told in the pulpit is why I cannot listen to this man preach – because there are a lot of these kinds of errors!
Read it for yourselves, Bible students:
Leviticus 10:1-9 King James Version (KJV)
And Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, took either of them his censer, and put fire therein, and put incense thereon, and offered strange fire before the Lord, which he commanded them not.
2 And there went out fire from the Lord, and devoured them, and they died before the Lord.
3 Then Moses said unto Aaron, This is it that the Lord spake, saying, I will be sanctified in them that come nigh me, and before all the people I will be glorified. And Aaron held his peace.
4 And Moses called Mishael and Elzaphan, the sons of Uzziel the uncle of Aaron, and said unto them, Come near, carry your brethren from before the sanctuary out of the camp.
5 So they went near, and carried them in their coats out of the camp; as Moses had said.
6 And Moses said unto Aaron, and unto Eleazar and unto Ithamar, his sons, Uncover not your heads, neither rend your clothes; lest ye die, and lest wrath come upon all the people: but let your brethren, the whole house of Israel, bewail the burning which the Lord hath kindled.
7 And ye shall not go out from the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, lest ye die: for the anointing oil of the Lordis upon you. And they did according to the word of Moses.
8 And the Lord spake unto Aaron, saying,
9 Do not drink wine nor strong drink, thou, nor thy sons with thee, when ye go into the tabernacle of the congregation, lest ye die: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations:
And with the end finally in sight, Dwayne Lemon now decides that verse 10 is the definition of ‘strange fire: “when you mix the holy with the profane” (5.29).
Is that the information in verse 10?!
10 And that ye may put difference between holy and unholy, and between unclean and clean;
So: Dwayne Lemon has decided that Nadab and Abihu were drunk. There is no evidence of this.
He has decided that they died because they were drunk. There is evidence that they died, yes. But no evidence that inebriation was the reason why! Yes, the Lord warns Aaron and his sons not to be drunk on duty in verse 9, but that does not tell us why Nadab and Abihu die. That would be a reasonable speculation…were it not for the fact that the Bible has told us how Nadab and Abihu died and Dwayne Lemon has refused to a) take the Bible at its word and assume that Nadab and Abihu offered an unacceptable brand of incense to the Lord; b) decided to read something into the narrative of the first ten verses of Leviticus 10 that just is not there.
You don’t agree?
Okay. Would you rather hear it from Ellen White?
“At the hour of worship, as the prayers and praise of the people were ascending to God, two of the sons of Aaron took each his censer and burned fragrant incense thereon, to rise as a sweet odor before the Lord. But they transgressed His command by the use of “strange fire.” For burning the incense they took common instead of the sacred fire which God Himself had kindled, and which He had commanded to be used for this purpose. For this sin a fire went out from the Lord and devoured them in the sight of the people.
Next to Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu had stood highest in Israel. They had been especially honored by the Lord, having been permitted with the seventy elders to behold His glory in the mount. But their transgression was not therefore to be excused or lightly regarded. All this rendered their sin more grievous.” [Patriarchs & Prophets Chapter 31, c. p, 359]
Where does the servant of the Lord speak about their drunkenness?!
How does this fit with Dwayne Lemon’s version of the definition of strange fire?!
If you have gotten this far, then God bless you. If you never got this far, God bless you too! I have said enough, and my heart is very heavy. But these shocking, calamitous errors are only one set of examples from this and other such speakers who travel the world in ministry having failed to do the homework and speaking punitively to the brethren about what God has not called them to preach.
Jesus is coming soon, and we must all give an account of our lives and of our ministries. How readest thou?!